I have been hospitalized four times in my life: tonsils and adenoids, two of my three children (my last one was born at home), and tubal ligation. I’ve been to the ER (for myself, that is) three times: broken collarbone, when I fell down a flight of stairs (thanks, high heels) and sprained my ankle, and when I had pyelonephritis. The only bill I had to pay from any of these was $50 for the ER visit for pyelo. The rest were paid for by insurance, way back when insurance actually paid for those things (or I was a child and my parents paid). So honestly I don’t have a lot of personal experience with our system from the point of view of the customer. I do from the point of view of an uninsured person however, so this perspective from someone WITH *good* insurance, is sobering.