I have made comments recently on a few sites regarding medieval times and it seems to me that there are many, many myths about how awful it would have been to be a serf.
Scenes such as these seem to be what people think of when they think of medieval life:
In reality, many serfs were the predecessors to the later merchant class and were, in fact, quite well off. They ate pretty decently for the times. They ate a reasonably health diet though very bland compared to ours. Rye, oats, and barley were staples; wheat was grown but mostly sold rather than eaten. Cabbage, spinach, peas, and beans were staples as well. Chickens were too valuable as egg layers to sacrifice for meat for the most part. Cattle were raised for milk and meat, oxen for plowing, sheep for milk, meat, and wool. Nuts and berries were gathered in season, beer was brewed and was also a staple of the diet. The poorest of the poor ate their grain as a gruel rather than ground it but even they generally had at least an onion for flavor. And everyone ate bread. Lots of bread.
Instead, one should imagine homes like these:
Because that’s what it more generally looked like.
Myth number 2:
Serfs were slaves.
Truth: um, yeah. I dare anyone who has a mortgage to just pick up and leave everything behind. And does moving somewhere else really make anything better, or does it just give one a new set of problems without necessarily improving one’s station in life? We are slaves as well, slaves to our jobs, slaves to our debts. A careful serf could save up the money to purchase his land from the lord; many did and became minor nobility in later times. This would free them from paying rents to the lord and leave only his mandatory taxes and tithes to pay. 1000 years later and I really don’t think the life of the average person is much better regarding freedom than it was in medieval times; it may in fact be much harder.
Myth number 3: you spend all your days working the land for the lord and only get to do your own when that’s complete, which it never is.
Truth: There were tasks that needed doing in every month, some harder physically than others, that needed doing. Period. For everyone. I took this from a website because it was short and sweet and to the point but it shows that there was not backbreaking work in every day of the year.
January & February – work indoors repairing hunting nets, sharpening tools, making utensils – on mild days work outdoors gather firewood, prune vines and mend fences.
March – work in the fields, plowing and cultivating.
April – clean ditches, pruning trees, fixing sheds, hauling timber, and repairing roofs
May - sheep washing and shearing, planting and field maintenance
June – mowing hay crop and raking it into piles
July – harvest grains, bundle sheaves, weeding gardens
August – threshing and winnowing of grains, grinding of grains into flour
September – fruits picked and dried or stored, grapes picked and pressed for juice and wine
October – gather nuts, roots, berries, and mushrooms, fields plowed and empty fields sown with winter wheat, repairing and cleaning equipment.
November – firewood gathered, split, and stacked for themselves and the lord, pigs and cows slaughtered and meat smoked, flax, wool, and hemp processed to make thread and rope
December – trim trees, prune grape vines, hunting
Taken from an article by Lisa Nikola http://www.historylink101.com.
There were religious festivals on which no one worked in the fields check out this medieval holy day calendar!
Feasting and socializing were normal and accepted, and in those times the left overs were given to the poor at the kitchen door of the castle. No one went hungry on feast days. Try imagining any modern American wealthy person giving the surplus from a banquet they held to the poor. Having a hard time imagining that? Me too.
So there you have it. Money wasn’t necessary for every day life, you didn’t have to spend ‘x’ number of hours every day or every week at a desk for a paycheck, you were free to organize your time (mostly) the way you want, you got to eat lunch with your family and friends every day, and you got lots of days off. And you got beer for breakfast, lunch, and dinner. Not, all in all, a bad life.
For more information, do a search on medieval farming, medieval beer, medieval agriculture, medieval life. I already knew a lot of this from my own research, but here’s a site you might like with interesting facts.